Messier Catalogue of Sky Objects
from Steven Banchard

1. Charles Messier
2. Messier’s Telescopes
3.
Messier Objects
4. Messier Marathon 
5. Yourself
6. Messier List 

 
 

Charles Messier (June 26, 1730 – April, 1817)

1.     Born in Badonviller, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine, France

2.     10th of 12 children

3.     Father died when 11

4.     Finished education on own

5.     Interest in astronomy at 14

·        A great 6-tailed comet appeared

·        Furthered by annular Solar eclipse on July 25, 1748

6.     Went to Paris in October, 1751 (age 17)

·        Employed by the astronomer of the Navy – Joseph Nicolas Delisle

·        First Job – copying a large map of China

·        Introduced into the observatory on Hotel de Cluny by Delisle’s secretary, Libour

·        Introduced to elementary astronomy by Delisle and convinced of usefulness of exact positions of all observations – setup for success of his catalog.

·        Regularly employed as a Depot Clerk of the Navy – 1754

7.     Searched for Comet Halley in 1757.

·        1757- Reported observation of M32 – companion to the Andromeda galaxy

·        Used Delisle’s calculations and his own fine star chart to search for Halley’s expected 1758 return.

·        Delisle’s calculation were in error, looked in wrong place – failed

·        Discovered  another comet on August 14, 1758

·        Observed with telescopes to November 2, 1758

·        During the comet observations discovered another comet-like patch that didn’t move in Taurus on August 28, 1758

·        Was a nebula, not a comet

·        Measured it’s position on September 12, 1758

·        Later became his first entry – M1 – 1054 supernova remnant, “Crab Nebula”

·        Triggered Messier to:

·        Look for comets with telescopes – inventing “telescopic comet hunting”

·        Compile his catalog of nebulous objects that could be mistaken for comets

·        Comet Halley finally discovered by Johann George Palitzch on December 25-26, 1758

·        Messier independently found Halley on January 21, 1759 when doubting Dilisle’s data

·        Delisle didn’t believe the error and refused to announce the discovery.

·        When Delisle finally announced the discovery on April 1, 1759, other French astronomers didn’t believe it

·        Delisle refused to publish a comet discovered by Messier in early 1760

·        Delisle finally supported Messier and let him do his own observations

8.     Messier recorded 2nd catalog object – M2 (previously discovered by Maraldi)

·        Plotted on a chart showing Comet Halley’s track

9.     1751

·        Observed Venus transit of the Sun

·        Observed the appearance of Saturn’s rings

10.       Observed Comet 1762 Klinkenberg from May to July, 1762

11.       Discovered Comet 1763 Messier on September 28, 1763

12.       Discovered Comet 1764 Messier on January 3, 1764 – as bright as magnitude 3.0

13.       After his discovery of his 3rd “nebula” object (globular cluster M3) he undertook serious scans of the skies for these objects – they could fool comet hunters

·        Cataloged objects M3 – M40

·        19 original Messier discoveries

·        Used catalogs and lists of:

·        Edmond Halley – 6 objects

·        William Derham

·        Lacaille’s Catalog of Southern  “Nebulae” of 1755

·        Maraldi

·        Le Gentil

·        References to De Che’seaux

·        Looked for several non-existent Nebulae from other catalogs  - may explaine the double star M40 in his catalog

14.       In correspondence with astronomers and academics in:

·        Britain

·        December 6, 1764 – made a foreign member of the Royal Society of London

·        Germany

·        Russia

·        Frederick La Harpe – Swiss exile and member of the Acadamy of Sciences

·        Via recommendation appointed to the Academy of St.Petersburg

15.       1765:

·    Found the star cluster M41

·    Delisle retired – Messier continued to observe from the Hotel Cluny

16.       March 8, 1766, discovered a new comet

17.       April 8 1766, co-discovered a new comet

18.       1767:

·  Only naval journey of his life – astronomical observations in the Baltic

·  During absence Lelande continued the observation program at Cluny

19.       1769:

·        Decided to publish his fist version of his catalog

·        Enlarged his number of objects to include M42 – M45 (Orion Nebula, Praesepe, and the Pleiades)


20.       August 8, 1769:

·        Discovered a new comet – 1769 Messier – the Great Comet of that year, sent a description and map to the King of Prussia

·        Under the king’s influence was made a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences

21.       1770:

·        Elected into the Paris Academie Royale des Sciences (Academy of Sciences)

·        2 weeks after discovering a comet (Comet Lexell)

·        Comet named after Anders Lexell – calculated it’s orbit

·    November 26 – Age 40, married Marie-Francoise de Vermauchampt

22.       1771:

·        January 10 – Independently co-discovered the Great Comet of that year

·        3 days after presentation of his 1st version of his catalog, measured M47 – M49

·        M47 and M48 were missed due to reduction of positional data until the 20th century

·        M49 was the first Virgo Cluster galaxy discovered

·    April 1 – discovered Comet 1771 Messier

·        13th comet

·        12th independent

·        7th original discovery

·    June 7th – discovered M62

·    Officially made Astronomer of the Navy, taking Delisle’s old position

23.       March 15, 1772 – Madame Messier gave birth to a son, both died within 11 days

24.       1772:

·        March 26 – April 3 – observed a comet discovered by Jean-Francois de Laharpe

·        April 5 – Added the cluster M50 to his list

25.       1773:

·        Discovered the second bright companion galaxy to the “Andromeda Nebula”, M110 but did not catalog it.

·        October 13 – discovered another comet “just visible” the the naked eye

26.       1774:

·        Found M51 and M52

·        Observed Comet 1774 Montaigne

·        Introduced to Pierre Mechain, the leading French astronomer at that time

27.                   February, 1777: – discovered M53, discovered 2 years earlier by Johann Elert Bode

28.       1778 – Found M54 and M55, reported by Lacaille, which Messier had looked for in vain in 1764


29.       1779:

·        January 19 – co-discovered Comet 1779 Bode which passed the Virgo Cluster

·        January 19 – May 19 – observed 6 objects M56 – M61

·        Burst of “nebulae” discovery

·        April 11 - Johann Gottfried Koehler discovered M59 and M60

·        April 15 – Messier discovered M58 and found Koehler’s previous two

·        May 5 – Oriani discovered M61, Messier found it the same day but thought it was the comet.  He realized it wasn’t by May 11

·         Messier finally got a good position on M62 he had discovered in 1771

·        June 14 – Mechain’s first discovery – M63

30.       1780:

·        January – Found M64 which had been discovered previously in 1779 by Bode

·        March – Found M65 and M66 which had been previously discovered by Mechain

·        April – Observed two additional objects M67 and M68 completing his 2nd version of the catalog that was published in 1780

·        August – Together with Mechain, began a vigorous effort to catalog more nebulae

·        By the end of the year had entries up to M79 and discovered a new comet 1780 I Messier

31.       1781:

·        March – Mechain’s discovered M105 but it was overlooked during the final publication

·        April – The list in increased to 100 objects.

·        Hastily added 3 more observed by Mechain without personally validating (M101 – M103) to complete his final publication.

·    May 11 – Added M104 to his personal copy and positions for M102 & M103 and the previously mentioned nebulae at M97, which now became M108 & M109

·    July – Mechain discovered M106

·    November 6 – An accident in his ice cellar interrupted his observing until November of the following year

32.       1782:

·        April - Mechain discovered M107

·        August – Stimulated by Messier’s catalog, William Hershel and his sister Caroline began to observe deep sky objects.

·        September 7 - Discovered his first deep sky object NGC 7009 – Saturn Nebula

·        October – began an extensive deep-sky survey and catalogued over 1000 objects by 1786 and over 2500 by 1802

·        Famous Hershel Catalog


33.       1783:

·        Mechain communicated to Bernoulli, editor of the Astromisches Jahrbuch, to include M105 – M107 with Messier’s catalog and disclaimed M102.  He thought it was a duplicate of M101 but may have been NGC 5866 that matches Messier’s description and may have been due to a data reduction error.

·        Messier dropped deep-sky searches and returned to comet searches, probably due to Hershel’s efforts.

·        His catalog was not corrected until the 20th century by identifying 3 of the missing objects, adding the late discoveries of M104 – M109 and the uncataloged discovery of M110

34.       1785:

·        January 7 – Discovered comet 1785 I Messier-Mechain, a comet at about magnitude 6.5

·        Appointed as associate editor of the Connaissance des Temps and held this position until 1790.  Mechain also became an associate editor in 1786.  Both successfully continued their search for comets

35.       The French Revolution began on June 14, 1789.  Four years later was the “Year of Terror” where the French king Louis XVI and later Messier’s friend , ex-president de Saron were guillotined.  Messier lost his salaried and pension.

36.       1801 – At age 71, took part in an observing project of occultations of the star Spica by the moon

·        July 12 – Last comet – co-discovered Comet 1801 Pons bringing his total to 20.

37.       Messier’s catalog was purely for comet hunting.  In an article from Messier in 1801 he wrote:

 “What caused me to undertake the catalog was the nebula I discovered above the southern horn of Taurus on September 12, 1758, whilst observing the comet of that year.  This nebula had such a resemblance to a comet in its form and brightness that I endeavored to find others, so that astronomers would no more confuse these same nebulae with comets just beginning to appear.  I observed further with suitable refractors for the discovery of comets, and this is the purpose I had in mind in compiling the catalog.

After me, the celebrated Herschel published a catalog of 2000 which he has observed.  This unveiling the heavens, made with instruments of great aperture, does not help in the perusal of the sky for faint comets.  Thus my object is different from his, and I need only nebulae visible in a telescope of two feet (focal length).  Since the publication of my catalog I have observed still others:  I will publish them in the future in the order of right ascension for the purpose of making them more easy to recognize and for those searching for comets to have less uncertainty.”

38.       In his older days, Messier in 1805 was presented the Cross of Legion of Honor by Napoleon.  In turn, in a memoir he devoted Napoleon the great comet of 1769, damaging his scientific reputation.  As Admiral Smith put it: 

“The last comet put astrologically before the public by an orthodox astronomer”

39         In 1815, Charles Messier suffered a stroke which left him partially paralyzed.  He passed away on the night of April 11-12, 1817 at the age of 87.

40         The astronomical community has lately honored Messier by naming a Lunar crater and Asteroid 7359 after him.  During his lifetime Lalande had proposed to name a constellation after him, Custos Mesium, between Cepheus, Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis 

To Top of Page

 

 

 
 

Messier’s Telescopes

 

1.           Ordinary refractor, 25’ Focal Length, 138X

2.           Achromatic refractor, 10.5’ Focal Length, 120X

3.           Achromatic refractor, 3.25’ Focal Length, 120X

4.           Ordinary refractor, 23’ Focal Length, 102X

5.           Ordinary refractor, 30’ Focal Length, 117X

6.           Campani refractor, 64X – An open tube design

7.           Gregorian reflector (“short”) 6’ Focal Length, 110X

8.           Gregorian reflector, 30’ Focal Length, 104X 

9.           Newtonian reflector, 4.5’ Focal Length, 60X

10.       Refractor, 1’ Focal Length, 3” aperture, 44X ---- scope most often quoted

11.       Refractor, 19’ Focal Length, 76X 

Although Messier’s reflecting scopes had 7.5” – 8” apertures, they had little light gathering due to speculum metal instead of todays glass mirrors.  The Newtonian reflector had an 8” aperture but only as effective as a 2.5” refractor  Later he preferred to use several 3.5” (90mm) achromatic refractors of about 3.5’ long and 120X 

Messier’s intruments couldn’t compete with a modern 4” refractor or 6” Newtonian reflector.

To Top of Page

 
 

Messier Objects

 

M1  Supernova Remnant in Taurus – Crab Nebula

·        Pulsar (spinning neutron star) at the center. 

·        Can be discovered by rapidly shuttering the image of the apparent “star”.  ON – OFF. 

·        During a visual comparison through my 10” and John McVey’s 8” Schmidt cassagrains

·        10” – “Z” shaped

·        8” – blobbed

 

M2  Globular Cluster in Aquarius,  – “Globular cluster, dense and full.  ¼ FOV” with a 25mm M.A. on a 10” Schmidt cassegrain

 

Next several objects are globular clusters – bright and easily visible but with poor optics could easily be mistaken with a comet

 

M6  First of the Open Clusters.  At least one of Messier’s open clusters are easy naked eye visible and easily mistaken for the fuzzy patch of a comet – M44 in Cancer, Praesepe/Behive Cluster

·        Telescopic view is not as impressive and binocular view due to size

 

M8  Lagoon Nebula in Sagitarius – first of the emission nebulas, fluorescing gas verses a grouping of stars – exception – M1. 

·        Nearby partner – M20 Trifid nebula in Sagitarius and M17 Swan/Omega in Sagitarius (personal favorite)

·        M16 – Eagle Nebula in Serpens,

·        standard image

·        Hubble “Star Pillars” image

·        10” at New Centerville by Idaho City --DARK--, FAINT nebulosity

 

M13 Globular Cluster in Hercules – HUGE Globular, resolvable stars clear to the core. 

·        Has a “3D” appearance through and eyepiece. 

·        Photos are usually overexposed, washing out the core – not enough dynamic range like the eye.

·        Larger telescopes like the 25” usually don’t gain anything over smaller personal scopes.

·        Often missed neighbor – M92, another fine globular, show STAR CHART

·        Richard Beavers likes to see if you would mistake this for M13 through his scope

 

M24 Milky Way Star Cloud in Sagitarius – Just a smooth scattering of countless stars

 

M27 Planetary Nebula in Vulpecula – “Dumbbell Nebula”.  First of the planetary nebula.

·        Shortlived (thousands of years) remnant of medium sized stars (SUN)

·        Appears as a fuzzy “football” in smaller scopes.

·        May find easily by swinging “north” from the point star of Sagitta w/EQ mount scope or have bottom stars of Lyra point at it to the south-east with a Alt-Az mount

 

M31 Andromeda Galaxy or “Great Galaxy in Andromeda” – first of the galaxies. – “spiral nebulas”

·        Over 4° across – many times the diameter or the moon

·        Easily naked eye visible on moderate to good seeing conditions

·        Binoculars or a SMALL telescope (finder scope) gives best view

·        Large instruments (Bruneau) can observe star clouds

·        Used by Edwin Hubble to measure Cephied variables and determined a galaxy, not a nebula

 

M32 & M110 Satellite galaxies to M32

 

M33   Triangulum Galaxy – sometimes also known as the Pinwheel galaxy

·        Difficult to see in an average amateur scope, sometime easier in a finder or binoculars

·        Faint “DIFFUSE” glow with some mottling

·        Photos over expose clumpiness of star clouds and make somewhat difficult to define spiral

·        Large instruments (Bruneau) supprisingly reveal a BARRED SPIRAL

 

M40   Two Stars in Ursa Major – not an expected “M” object. 

·        Similar situation for the M73 Trio of stars in Aquarius

 

M42   Great Orion Nebula – On Orion’s sword, possibly largest nebula in our galaxy

·        BRIGHT

·        Overhead during winter nights and early spring evenings

·        Use Binoculars if never seen before

·        Usually exceeds a scope FOV by several times

·        Trapezium

 

M45   Open Cluster, Pleiades or Subaru (vehicle logo) –

·        Suprising since object is easily a naked eye asterism of stars, not nebulus to the eye unless by LARGE instruments

·        Good binocular object

 

M51   Whirlpool Galaxy in Canes Vanatici

·        Large face on spiral with a satellite galaxy at southern end

·        10” will give some spiral definition during good seeing

·        Favorite object at a LARGE scope (Bruneau)

·        Can trace arm swinging by the satellite and gravitational distortion of the arm

 

M57   Planetary Nebula – Ring Nebula in Lyra

·        Considered the definition of a planetary nebula

·        Most studied

·        Looks like a small “Cherio” in a small scope

·        Star approx, Sun size that died of old age

·        Central white dwarf only visible in HUGE scopes (not 25”)

 

M58   Spiral Galaxy in Virgo

·        In the Virgo cluster of galaxies

·        Includes areas of Leo and Coma Berenices

·        Can get lost in the shear number of “faint fuzzies”

·        Great area to just do slow sweeps

 

M104 Edge on Spiral Galaxy in Virgo, Sombrero Galaxy

·        Personal favorite

·        In a 10” scope – looks like it’s picture

·        Can see the edge dust lane

·        Known for the number of Globular Clusters  

 
To Top of Page 

 
 
 

Messier Marathon 

 Describe

1.      March – All 110 “M” objects are visible through the course of a night.

2.      An endurance race, possibly a bit masochistic

3.      There is a gap in the catalog that could only be seen during the day

 

 
 

Holding a Messier Marathon

 

1.    Usually a group event held during the weekend closest to the equinox (March 23) that is still New Moon

 2.    Imperative that observing site has good horizons in all directions.

 3.    Have an area for observers to warm up

 4.    Have parking available for early leavers away from the main observing area

 5.    Advise all attendees to dress properly – IT GETS COLD!!!!

 6.    Set up before Sunset

 7.    Advise attendees, unless using a computer guided scope, practice

·        If possible practice on objects that appear first and last on the list – M30, M72, M73, M74, M77, and M76.

 8.           Offer awards or certificates to those that bag the most objects, maybe based on:

·        Age

·        Telescope aperture

·        Hunting methods – digital vs star hopping or setting circles

·        Experience

To Top of Page 

 

 
 

Yourself

 1.           Dress properly – IT GETS COLD!!

·        Layered cloths

·        Insulated boots

·        Hat – most of your heat is lost from your head

 

2.           Necessary items to bring:

·        Telescope or binoculars

·        Eyepieces

·        Charts

·        Red flashlight

·        Table and chair

 

3.           Convenience items to bring:

·        Snack Food – high energy (watch out for high sugar)

·        Beverages – preferably hot

·        Aspirin

·        Alarm clock

·        Something to take a nap in – sleeping bag or heavy blankets

·        Extra batteries for you flashlight

 

4.           Have a prepared checklist of all of the Messier objects

 

5.           HAVE FUN!!

To Top of Page 

 

 
 

Observing list

Stage 1: Evening Objects (7:30pm – 8:30pm)

Order   Messier     Const.    R.A.              Dec.          Type       Mag.       Size

1          M45          Tau         3h 47.0m        24° 07’      OC         1.2          110

2          M42          Ori          5h 35.4m        -5° 27’      DN         ----          66x60

3          M43          Ori          5h 35.6m        -5° 16’      DN         ----          20x15

4          M103        Cas         1h 33.2m        60° 42’      OC         7.4          6

5          M52          Cas         23h 4.2m        61° 35’      OC         6.9          13

6          M76          Per         1h 42.4m        51° 34’      PN          12.2        1

7          M34          Per         2h 42.0m        42° 47’      OC         5.2          35

8          M31          And        0h 42.7m        41° 16’      Gal         3.5          178x63

9          M32          And        0h 42.7m        40° 52’      Gal         8.2          8x6

10        M110        And        0h 40.4m        41° 41’      Gal         8.0          17x10

11        M33          Tri          1h 33.9m        30° 39’      Gal         5.7          62x39

12        M77          Cet         2h 42.7m        -0° 01’      Gal         8.8          7x6

13        M74          Psc         1h 42.7m        15° 47’      Gal         9.2          10x10

 

Stage 2: The Winter Objects (8:30pm – 9:30pm)

Order   Messier     Const.    R.A.              Dec.          Type       Mag.       Siz e

14        M79          Lep         5h 24.5m        -24° 33’    GC         8.0          9

15        M78          Ori          5h 46.7m        0° 03’       DN         ----          8x6

16        M1            Tau         5h 34.5m        22° 01’      DN         ----          6x4

17        M35          Gem       6h 08.9m        24° 20’      OC         5.1          28

18        M38          Aur         5h 28.7m        35° 50’      OC         6.4          21

19        M36          Aur         5h 36.1m        34° 08’      OC         6.0          12

20        M37          Aur         5h 52.4m        32° 33’      OC         5.6          24

21        M41          CMa       6h 47.0m        -20° 44’    OC         4.5          38

22        M93          Pup        7h 44.6m        -23° 52’    OC         6.2          22

23        M50          Mon       7h 03.2m        -8° 20’      OC         5.9          16

24        M47          Pup        7h 36.6m        -14° 30’    OC         4.4          30

25        M46          Pup        7h 41.8m        -14° 49’    OC         6.1          27

26        M48          Hyd        8h 13.8m        -5° 48’      OC         5.8          54

27        M44          Cnc        8h 40.1m        19° 59’      OC         3.1          95

28        M67          Cnc        8h 50.4m        11° 49’      OC         6.9          30


Stage 3: The Spring Objects (9:30pm – 11:00pm)

Order    Messier      Const.     R.A.               Dec.          Type       Mag.       Size

29        M95          Leo         10h 44.0m      11° 42’      Gal         9.7          7x5

30        M96          Leo         10h 46.8m      11° 49’      Gal         9.2          7x5

31        M105        Leo         10h 47.8m      12° 35’      Gal         9.3          5x4

32        M65          Leo         11h 18.9m      13° 05’      Gal         9.3          10x3

33        M66          Leo         11h 20.2m      12° 59’      Gal         9.0          9x4

34        M81          UMa       9h 55.6m        69° 04’      Gal         6.9          26x14

35        M82          UMa       9h 55.8m        69° 41’      Gal         8.4          11.5

36        M108        UMa       11h 11.5m      55° 40’      Gal         10.1        8x3

37        M97          UMa       11h 14.8m      55° 01’      PN          12.0        3

38        M109        UMa       11h 57.6m      53° 23’      Gal         9.8          8x5

39        M40          UMa       12h 22.4m      58° 05’      DS          8.0          1    <----Double star

40        M106        CVn        12h 19.0m      47° 18’      Gal         8.3          18x8

41        M94          CVn        12h 50.9m      41° 07’      Gal         8.2          11x9

42        M63          CVn        13h 15.8m      42° 02’      Gal         8.6          12x8

43        M101        Uma       14h 03.2m      54° 21’      Gal         7.7          27x26

44        M51          CVn        13h 29.9m      47° 12’      Gal         8.4          11x8

45        \m102        UMa       15h 06.5m      55° 46’      Gal         9.8          5x2

46        M53          Com       13h 12.9m      18° 10’      GC         7.7          13

47        M64          Com       12h 56.7m      21° 41’      Gal         8.5          9x5

48        M3            Com       12h 40.0m      -11° 37’     Gal         8.3          9x4

 

Stage 4: The Virgo Cluster (11:00pm – 12:00am)

Order    Messier      Const.     R.A.               Dec.          Type       Mag.       Size

49        M98          Com       12h 13.8m      14° 54’      Gal         10.1        10x3

50        M99          Com       12h 18.8m      14° 25’      Gal         9.8          9x5

51        M100        Com       12h 22.9m      15° 49’      Gal         9.4          7x6

52        M85          Com       12h 25.4m      18° 11’      Gal         9.2          7x5

53        M84          Vir          12h 25.1m      12° 53’      Gal         9.3          5x4

54        M86          Vir          12h 26.2m      12° 57’      Gal         9.2          7x6

55        M87          Vir          12h 30.8m      12° 24’      Gal         8.6          7x7

56        M89          Vir          12h 35.7m      12° 33’      Gal         9.8          4x4

57        M90          Vir          12h 36.8m      13° 10’      Gal         9.5          10x5

58        M88          Com       12h 32.0m      14° 25’      Gal         9.5          7x4

59        M91          Com       12h 35.4m      14° 30’      Gal         10.2        5x4

60        M58          Vir          12h 37.7m      11° 49’      Gal         9.8          5x4

61        M59          Vir          12h 42.0m      11° 39’      Gal         9.8          5x3

62        M60          Vir          12h 43.7m      11° 33’      Gal         8.8          7x6

63        M49          Vir          12h 29.8m      8° 00’        Gal         8.4          9x7

64        M61          Vir          12h 21.9m      4° 28’        Gal         9.7          6x6

65        M104        Vir          12h 40.0m      -11° 37’     Gal         8.0          8x3

66        M68          Hya        12a 39.5m      -26° 45’     GC         8.2          12

67        M83          Hya        13h 37.0m      -29° 52’     Gal         8.0          11x10

Stage 5: Nap Time (12:00am – 2:00am)

 

Stage 6: The Summer Objects (2:00am – 4:00am)

Order   Messier     Const.    R.A.              Dec.          Type       Mag.       Size

68        M5            Ser         15h 18.6m      2° 05’       GC         5.8          12

69        M13          Her         16h 41.7m      36° 41.7’   GC         5.9          17

70        M92          Her         17h 17.1m      43° 08’      GC         6.5          11

71        M57          Lyr         18h 53.6m      33° 02’      PN          9.7          1

72        M56          Lyr         19h 16.6m      30° 11’      GC         8.3          7

73        M29          Cyg        20h 23.9m      38° 32’      OC         6.6          8

74        M39          Cyg        21h 32.2m      48° 26’      OC         4.6          32

75        M27          Vul         19h 59.6m      22° 43’      PN          7.6          6

76        M71          Sge         19h 53.8m      18° 47’      GC         8.3          7

77        M107        Oph        16h 32.5m      -13° 03’    GC         8.1          10

78        M12          Oph        16h 47.2m      -1° 57’      GC         6.6          15

79        M10          Oph        16h 57.1m      -4° 06’      GC         6.6          15

80        M14          Oph        17h 37.6m      -3° 15’      GC         7.6          12

81        M4            Sco        16h 23.6m      -26° 32’    GC         5.9          26

82        M80          Sco        16h 17.0m      -22° 59’    GC         7.2          9

83        M9            Oph        17h 19.2m      -18° 31’    GC         7.9          9

84        M19          Oph        17h 02.6m      -26° 16’    GC         7.2          14

85        M62          Oph        17h 01.2m      -30° 07’    GC         6.6          14

86        M7            Sco        17h 53.9m      -34° 49’    OC         3.3          80

87        M6            Sco        17h 40.1m      -32° 13’    OC         4.2          15

88        M11          Sct         18h 51.1m      -6° 16’      OC         5.8          14

89        M26          Sct         18h 45.2m      -9° 24’      OC         8.0          15

90        M16          Ser         18h 18.8m      -13° 47’    DN         ----          35x28

91        M17          Sgr         18h 20.8m      -16° 11’    DN         ----          46x37

92        M18          Sgr         18h 19.9m      -17° 08’    OC         6.9          9

93        M24          Sgr         18h 16.9m      -18° 29’    OC         4.5          120x40

94        M25          Sgr         18h 31.6m      -19° 15’    OC         4.6          32

95        M23          Sgr         17h 56.8m      -19° 01’    OC         5.5          27

96        M21          Sgr         18h 04.6m      -22° 30’    OC         5.9          13

97        M20          Sgr         18h 02.6m      -23° 02’    DN         ----          29x27

98        M8            Sgr         18h 03.8m      -24° 23’    DN         ----          90x40

99        M28          Sgr         18h 24.5m      -24° 52’    GC         6.9          11

100       M22          Sgr         18h 36.4m      -23° 54’    GC         5.1          24

101       M69          Sgr         18h 31.4m      -32° 21’    GC         7.7          4

102       M70          Sgr         18h 43.2m      -32° 18’    GC         8.1          8

103       M54          Sgr         18h 55.1m      -30° 29’    GC         7.7          9

104       M55          Sgr         19h 40.0m      -30° 51’    GC         7.0          19

105       M75          Sgr         20h 06.1m      -21° 55’    GC         8.6          6

 

Stage 7: The Morning Objects (4:00am – Sunrise)

Order   Messier     Const.    R.A.              Dec.          Type       Mag.       Size

106       M15          Peg         21h 30.0m      12° 10’      GC         6.4          12

107       M2            Aqr         21h 33.5m      -0° 49’      GC         6.5          13

108       M72          Aqr         20h 53.5m      -12° 32’    GC         9.4          6

109       M73          Aqr         20h 59.0m      -12° 38’    OC         8.9          3

110       M30          Cap        21h 40.4m      -23° 11’    GC         7.5          11

 
 
  Thanks Steven Blanchard for this Information  

11/12/03